- Make a Single Copy for Teachers
A single copy of the following may be made by a teacher for scholarly research or use in teaching or class preparation:
- A chapter from a book;
- An article from a journal, periodical or newspaper;
- A short story, short essay or short poem
- A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical or newspaper.
- Make Multiple Copies for Classroom Use
Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per student in the course) may be made by a teacher for classroom use or discussion; provided that:
- The copying meets the tests of brevity, spontaneity and cumulative. This means you must consider how much of a work you are copying and how many times you use a work in class.
- Each copy includes a notice of copyright.
Note: There are specific exceptions to creating multiple copies for classroom use that the copyright law prohibits
- Copying shall not be used to create or to replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations or collective works.
- There shall be no copying of or from works intended to be “consumable” in the course of study or of teaching. These include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests, and test booklets and answer sheets.
- Copying shall not substitute for the purchase of books, publishers’ reprints or periodicals; be directed by higher authority; be repeated with respect to the same item by the same teacher from term to term.
- No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual cost of the photocopying.
For additional information, please see the US Copyright Office’s Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians.
Faculty may NOT:
- Make multiple copies of different works that could substitute for the purchase of books, publisher’s reprints, or periodicals.
- Copy the same works from semester to semester.
- Copy the same material for several different courses at the same or different institutions.
- Show a feature film or video, bought or rented at a retail store, without a public performance license from the owner or distributor. Videotapes purchased by Educational Resources for use in the classroom and in the Library are licensed for public performance.
- Tape a radio or a TV program, with the exception of a news or news commentary program, to show to a class even once without the permission of the owner or broadcaster.
- Modify, distort, change, rearrange or recombine a print or a/v work for teaching. This is a violation of the creator’s ‘moral rights’.
- Make copies of ‘workbooks’. Students must purchase their own workbooks